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ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВО РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
«ВЫСШАЯ ШКОЛА ЭКОНОМИКИ»
Т.A. Бойцова, Л.E. Кондаурова, A.В. Соснин
ENGLISH MODALS IN USE
МОДАЛЬНЫЙ ГЛАГОЛ В ЯЗЫКЕ И РЕЧИ
по модальным глаголам
в английском языке
Учебно-методическое пособие рекомендовано к изданию кафедрой иностранных языков НИУ ВШЭ – Нижний Новгород и одобрено учебно-методическим советом НИУ ВШЭ – Нижний Новгород.
Рецензент: кандидат филологических наук, доцент Смирнова Н.И.
Бойцова Т.А., Кондаурова Л.Е., Соснин А.В.
Б 77 English Modals in Use. Модальный глагол в языке и речи: учебно-методическое пособие / Т.А.Бойцова, Л.Е. Кондаурова, А.В. Соснин. – Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Нижегородский филиал. – Н. Новгород: ООО «Стимул-СТ», 2011. – 118 с.
Настоящее пособие предназначено для целенаправленной работы по усвоению английских модальных глаголов в студенческой аудитории, на различных курсах по подготовке к экзамену и в процессе самостоятельного изучения. Представленная система упражнений и тестов позволяет эффективно формировать четыре составляющие грамматических навыков и умений, а также активно обучать технике построения высказываний на английском языке, способствуя повышению коммуникативной грамотности студентов. К пособию прилагается диск с аудиоматериалами в формате «mp3».
ISBN 5-88022-183-0 © НИУ ВШЭ – Нижний Новгород, 2011
© Т.А. Бойцова, Л.Е. Кондаурова,
А.В. Соснин, 2011
C o n t e n t s
Part I Modals Expressing Obligation 5
1.1 Expressing Strong Unavoidable Obligation: Must 5
1.2 Expressing Obligation Arising out of Circumstances:
Have to 6
1.3 Agreement, Arrangement: To Be to 9
1.4 Advisability, Recommendation: Should, Had Better 12
1.5 Moral Obligation: Ought to 14
1.6 Necessity: Need 16
1.7 Lack of Necessity and Prohibition: Need, Have to,
Must in the Negative; Not Allowed to, Not Supposed to 17
1.8 Volition: Will / Would 22
Part II Modals Expressing Supposition / Degrees of Certainty 25
2.1 Strong Supposition: Must 25
2.2 Slight Supposition: May / Might 28
2.3 Expressing Disbelief, Doubt, Surprise in Negative and
Interrogative Sentences: Can / Could 31
2.4 The Modal Word-Combination To Be Liable to Do Sth 34
Part III Modals Expressing Possibility 36
3.1 Expressing Mental and Physical Ability: Can, Be Able to 36
3.2 Expressing Possibility, Asking for Permission: May, Can 39
3.3 Reproach: Should, Ought to, Might+Perfect Infinitive 42
3.4 Making Suggestions, Asking for Instructions: Shall 46
3.5 Polite Requests with Can / Could, Will / Would, May / Might 47
3.6 Revision Exercises 49
Part IV Cumulative Review 52
4.1 General Revision Exercises 52
4.2 Praxis 62
4.3 Assessment Tests 71
Supplementary Tests and Exercises 75
Observe and Remember:
Summary Charts of Modals 110
The Forms of the Infinitive 112
Grammar Notes 113
I n t r o d u c t i o n
Modals express a variety of moods or attitudes towards a possible state or action. A good test of your mastery of a foreign language is how well you can express your moods and feelings – can you be tactfully insistent, reproachful or are you usually tempted to fall back on your own language when your feelings are involved?
A clear understanding and the accurate use of modal verbs can significantly facilitate communication. Modals make speech clearer and easier to understand. They will certainly help Russian learners speak a polite English and step up their level of communicative proficiency.
Here are some basic stylistic mistakes of non-native speakers of English:
At the entrance to a hotel, the guide is instructing a group of American tourists: "You must get off the coach, then you must register and leave your luggage in the suite. You must meet me at nine. You mustn't be late."
The reaction of one of the tourists was, "I think I owe nothing to this country."
"Can I eat these cakes?" asked a Russian schoolboy staying with an English family. "I don’t know", was the answer of the hostess.
English Modals In Use offers grammar rules, stylistic guidelines, summary charts, assessment tests and a series of skill-building exercises for class- and homework. We have substantiated the explanations of the most important points of the English modals usage with a lot of practical material, so that you can activate the acquired knowledge immediately. It has been our endeavour to supply a wide variety of communicative assignments, with the focus on different aspects of language learning. A compact disc with a selection of recorded dialogues accompanies the manual. So you will be able to listen to native speakers and enhance your comprehension skills.
We have provided ample testing materials for students to regularly check the progress they make. The tests can also be useful for the teacher in highlighting the points that need more work and the areas that can be considered successfully completed.
The manual includes four parts and a supplement. Part I covers the modals expressing obligation, Part II – the modals expressing supposition and Part III – the modals expressing possibility. Part IV is essentially a review of the material studied. It includes the Praxis section, which is specifically targeted at activating the students’ skills of handling the modals and at building up their ability to grasp information, memorize it and give a quick response in a communicative situation. The Supplement contains additional tests and exercises, grammar notes and summary tables of the modals and the Infinitive forms.
We hope you will find this book useful and pleasant to work with.
Your attitude and thoughts must be constantly changing for the better.
Be yourself, only better. Be the best you can be!
M O D A L S E X P R E S S I N G O B L I G A T I O N
1.1 M u s t
Expressing Strong Unavoidable Obligation
The form: must (present) – had to (past) – will have to (future)
The Russian equivalent: должен, обязан
a) strong, unavoidable obligation, i.e. imperative obligation
according to the law / Constitution.
You must obey the law.
Young men of 18 must join the Army.
b) emotional obligation, i.e. obligation from the speaker's point of view or
a personal decision, which you feel strongly about.
I kept saying to myself: "Something must be done! Something must be done!"
‘Must’ is used in present-time contexts with reference to the present or future. In past-time contexts, use this form only in reported speech.
‘Must’ may have additional shades of meaning in different contexts such as duty or necessity. In this meaning, ‘must’ occurs in affirmative and interrogative sentences to be followed only by the Simple Infinitive*.
Must I visit my sick uncle at the hospital, I wonder?
In the meaning of prohibition, ‘must’ is only used in negative sentences and is also followed by the Simple Infinitive without the particle ‘to’.
You mustn't smoke at a petrol station.
‘Must not’ can express something that you are not allowed to do or strongly
recommended not to do.
You mustn't take more than two tablets.
Ex.I Complete the following sentences.
1. In order to be a good manager, you must...
2. Students mustn't...
3. All applicants must...
4. Employees mustn't...
5. Must doctors...?
6. Drivers mustn't...
7. Must managers...?
8. If you are unwell, you...
9. If you want to succeed, you...
10. If a person wants to hold important positions in the company, they ...
Ex.II Answer the questions.
1. Can you think of something important that you must do tomorrow?
2. What time must you come to the University?
3. What must you do when your teacher enters the classroom?
4. What must you do if you lag behind the group?
5. How often must you write essays?
6. Why must you stay home when you are ill?
7. Why must one air the room?
8. Why mustn't you interrupt people?
9. Why mustn't you copy from your groupmates?
Ex.III Change the following sentences into the past and future.
Model: They must repeat their experiment.
They had to repeat their experiment.
They will have to repeat their experiment.
1. We must take the 8.30 train to arrive in time.
2. You must lock the laboratory after the working day is over.
3. You must discuss this point with the manager.
4. He must write an account of his work.
5. You must ring up your business partner without delay.
6. The president of the club must sign the contract for service delivery.
7. You mustn't drive at break-neck speed.
8. You mustn't stay away from classes.
9. You must look up the new words.
10. Students must work hard and regularly burning the midnight oil.
Ex.IV Use in a dialogue.
1. We simply must accept her invitation.
2. I simply must tell the whole truth.
3. You mustn't say it! You mustn't even think of it!
1.2 T o H a v e t o
Expressing Obligation Arising Out of Circumstances
The form: to have to (present) – had to (past) – will have to (future)
The Russian equivalent: вынужден; приходится что-то делать
The modal ‘to have to’ expresses circumstantial obligation, which is often unpleasant to fulfil. It can only be combined with the Simple Infinitive:
The rules are very strict, but we have to comply with them.
I've got terrible toothache, I’ll have to go to the dentist.
The road was slippery and John had to drive carefully.
‘To have to’ is used with the auxiliary ‘do’ in questions and negatives:
Do you really have to do that?
He did not have to ask them for help.
When used in the negative form, ‘to have to’denotes absence of necessity. Note that ‘must not’, the negative of must, expresses prohibition.
He did not have to do it. vs. He must not do it.
Ex.I Turn the following sentences into disjunctive questions
(with the conjunction ‘or’).
1. Every factory will have to reduce waste sooner or later.
2. Bill had to go back to town at once.
3. I'm afraid, you'll have to take control of the day-to-day management of the
4. Carol had to get involved in the campaign.
5. They usually have to contact other firms for advice.
Ex.II Ask special questions on the following sentences
(i.e. starting with question words like ‘what’, ‘why’ etc.)
1. Steve had to switch on the microwave oven because he wanted to warm up
2. We had to work round the clock to pass the exams successfully.
3. He has to take a bus as he lives rather far from his office.
4. I’ll be busy on Monday morning, so I'll have to make an appointment
for Tuesday morning.
5. They have to inspect the work of the local branch once a year.
Ex.III Complete the following sentences.
1. We have to participate in...
2. Did you have to...?
3. Why did you have to...?
4. Who had to...?
5. It's nearly closing time. I'm afraid I'll have to...
6. He was left alone and had to...
7. The case was serious and the police had to…
8. Business was not doing well. So he had to...
9. Why do you have to...?
10. Customs regulations have to...
Ex.IV Answer the following questions. Use the words suggested.
Model: - Why didn't you stay longer? (go home)
- I had to go home.
1. Why didn't you come to see us? (had to go for an intreview).
2. Why didn't Clyde drive his car? (repair it).
3. Why didn't she meet us? (was busy at the office).
4. Why didn't she come back in time? (call on her sick friend).
5. Why didn't she go to the meeting? (had to work on a very important project).
6. Why didn't he meet his friend at the airport? (go on a business trip).
7. Why didn't they go on a trip? (to pay their old debt).
8. What made them repeat the experiment? (change the plan for the experiment).
9. What makes her burn the midnight oil? (take her entrance exams in July).
10. Why is she so dispirited? (have a re-examination in maths).
Ex.V Advise me what to do when my computer has the following problems.
1. The memory is full.
2. Nothing happens when I move the mouse.
3. My computer is rather old and slow.
4. I can’t find the information I need in the manual.
5. I’m doing an important job, which will take several days.
Ideas: delete some files; re-boot; upgrade the whole system; consult the helpline; back up the file every evening
Ex.VI Make up sentences using the given words; you will also need ‘have
to’, ‘must’ or ‘must not’.
1. You / forget / back up / file
2. You / remember / save / changes
3. You / install / new / version / before / start to work
4. You / use / computer / until / file / download
5. You / overload / memory / open / too / many / files
Ex.VII Translate into English using the modals ‘must’and ‘to have to’.
Ex.VIII  Listen to the following dialogue. Analyse the use of ‘to have to’.
George: Will you show me how to fill in this application form?
Mary: Have you got to do it right now?*
George: Yes, it has to be in the post by Thursday morning.
Mary: Well, first of all, you have to write your name in capitals. You have to
give your first name, but you don’t have to give your middle name. You
have to put your address on the next line, but you don’t have to put it in
George: Do I have to give the date of my birth?
Mary: Yes, you do. And you have to state whether you’ve had any contagious
disease. You have to give full particulars about your present job, but you
haven’t got to say why you want to leave it.
George: Have I got to do it in duplicate?
Mary: No, in triplicate. You have to sign it and you have to enclose a stamped
self-addressed envelope if you want a reply.
George: Have I got to send a photo?
Mary: No, you don’t.
George: Have I got to answer all the questions?
Mary: No, you only have to answer those that concern you.
George: I’ll have to read the instructions again. I mustn’t make any mistakes.
Mary: Will you have to have an interview?
George: Yes, I expect I’ll have to go for one next week. Luckily, I haven’t got to
pass an examination. I haven’t got to know anything at all. It’s
personality that counts!
Ex. IX Reproduce the dialogue following the speakers’ intonation patterns.
Ex. X Make up a dialogue by analogy using as many modal structures ‘to have
to do sth’ and ‘to have got to do sth’ as possible.
1.3 T o B e T o
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