Методические рекомендации для студентов по дисциплине дпп. 06. «Теория и методика обучения иностранному языку»


НазваниеМетодические рекомендации для студентов по дисциплине дпп. 06. «Теория и методика обучения иностранному языку»
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Step 1. Test 1


Work in pairs, read the definition and name the competence:

Pair work


Timing 7`




  1. The desire and self-confidence to interact with others as well as ‘empathy and the ability to handle social situations’.

  2. Knowledge of vocabulary items and mastery of certain structural rules through which they are processed into meaningful utterances.

  3. A certain degree of familiarity with the socio-cultural context in which the language is used.

  4. The ability to use and interpret language forms with situational appropriacy.

  5. The ability to use verbal and non-verbal strategies to compensate for gaps in the user’s knowledge of the code.

  6. The ability to perceive and achieve coherence of separate utterances in meaningful communication patterns.

Step 2. Test 2

Match a term to its notion:

Pair work

Timing 10`




1. Communicative teaching

A. Information that is given to learners about their spoken or written performance, or to trainees or teachers about their teaching. Verbal and non-verbal commentary showing the level of the success of the done task (for example, the mark) or the level of understanding.

2. Method

B. Mechanically training exercise for practising separated vocabulary or grammar structures; it is an accuracy technique.

3. Activity

C. the goal of this teaching method is communication, both in the classroom and in real life. It generally encourages more learner talk for real communicative purposes and a facilitative role for the teacher.

4. Feedback

D. An activity, in which a learner knows something that another learner does not know, so has to communicate. It is used a lot in communicative language teaching (eg. two learners have two different pictures and have to find the differences between them without showing their pictures to each other).

5. Drill

E. Method of doing something, it can be presentation, practice, accuracy, fluency, testing, …

6. Information gap

F. a short task, which is part of a lesson, perhaps lasting 15 –20 minutes. Synonymous here with ‘task’.

7. Technique

G. the procedures and techniques characteristic of teaching.


Step 3. Engage ‘A course in Language Teaching’ P.Ur

1) Evaluation is the sixth basic principle of the Communicative language teaching. Feedback is closely connected with Evaluation. In general, feedback is information that is given to the learner about his or her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving this performance. Feedback has two main components: assessment and correction. In principle correction should include information on what the learner did right, as well as wrong and (why?) teachers and learners understand the term as correction of mistakes. It is, of course, possible to give assessment without correcting. But if a correction is supplied, the learner is aware that this means the teacher thinks something was wrong. A more important thing her is that when the teacher gives feedback, the purpose is to help and promote learning and that ‘getting it wrong ‘ is not ‘bad’, but rather a way into ‘getting it right’. The opinions on assessment in Box 17.1 are based on different theories of language learning or methodologies. As you read, think about and discuss how far you agree with the various statements.

S1 S2 S3


Step 4. Study Statements about feedback Box 17.5

  1. In my opinion a power hierarchy in the classroom is inevitable: the right of the teacher to correct and assess is one expression of it. But the teacher’s role as server and supporter of the learners can’t be neglected. So the two roles are equally essential. (very much agree)

  2. If you have ever undergone assessment yourself, you can recollect the experience of real humiliation. It’s important to recognize that such a possibility exists. (very much agree)

  3. It’s true that positive feedback tends to encourage. But negative feedback, if given supportively and warmly, can be recognized as constructive (totally disagree)

  4. If there are good relationships, praise often becomes unnecessary; frank, friendly criticism is probably more appropriate. (agree to some extent)

  5. Students tend to expect approval as a matter of course and are hurt if they don’t get it. In fact, overused, uncritical praise can begin to irritate. (very much agree)

  6. If peer-correction causes conflict or tension between individuals, this probably means that relationships were not particularly warm. In other words, I do not think that peer-correction in itself can hurt if students feel good with one another (agree to some extent).


GIVING AND RECEIVING FEEDBACK
The purpose is to understand the role of feedback in observation process.

You will get a clear idea of giving and receiving feedback on students’ performance at the lessons during school practice.
Activity. What would you like to know about feedback? Write down your questions.


Feedback




What

How

Who

When

Activity. What is Feedback? Try to explain this word in one sentence.

Feedback is ... _______________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

Activity. Read the definition of the term ‘Feedback’ and distinguish two main components of it.
In the context of teaching in general, feedback is information that is given to the learner about his or her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving this performance.

Feedback has two main distinguishable components: assessment and correction. In assessment, the learner is simply informed how well or badly he or she has performed. A percentage grade on an exam would be one example; or the response 'No' to an attempted answer to a question in class; or a comment such as 'Fair' at the end of a written assignment. In correction, some specific information is provided on aspects of the learner's performance: through explanation, or provision of better or other alternatives, or through elicitation of these from the learner. Note that in principle correction can and should include information on what the learner did right, as well as wrong, and why! - but teachers and learners generally understand the term as referring to the correction of mistakes, so that is (usually) how it is used here.



Suggestions for improving

evaluation

FEEDBACK


+ =

HOW DO YOU FEEL WHEN YOU GIVE OR RECEIVE FEEDBACK?

Activity. Answer the question of the Feedback Attitude Survey.
Statements about Feedback

Activity. There is a list of statements with an ‘Agree-Disagree’ continuum below each. You may like to add more statements in the spaces provided. Put a cross on the continuum for each statement to indicate how far you agree with it.
1.The fact that the teacher gives feedback on student performance implies a power hierarchy: the teacher above, the student below.

Very much Totally

agree disagree

2. Assessment is potentially humiliating to the assessed person.

Very much Totally

agree disagree

3. Teachers should give their students only positive feedback, in order to encourage, raise confidence and promote feelings of success; negative feedback demoralizes.

Very much Totally

agree disagree

4. Giving plenty of praise and encouragement is important for the fostering of good

teacher - student relationships.

Very much Totally

agree disagree

5. Very frequent approval and praise lose their encouraging effect; and lack of praise may then be interpreted as negative feedback.

Very much Totally

agree disagree

6. Teachers should not let students correct each other's work, as this is harmful to their relationships.

Very much Totally

agree disagree

7. ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Very much Totally

agree disagree

8. ……………………………………………………………………………………

Very much Totally

agree disagree

HOW TO GIVE AND RECEIVE FEEDBACK?
Activity. The following guidelines may help you improve your feedback skills. Read them and define the qualities that a giver of feedback should possess. Write them down in the right-hand part of the chart.


Guidelines

Qualities

Giving feedback


  1. Feedback is better when solicited rather than when imposed. In works best when the receiver has asked for it to be given.

  2. Consider the timing. In general, feedback is most useful at the earliest opportunity after the given behaviour (depending, of course, on the person's readiness to hear it, on support available from others, etc).

  3. Be descriptive rather than evaluative. Describing what we actually hear and see reduces the need for the other person to react in a defensive way.

  4. Reveal your own position or feelings vis-à-vis the other persons. For example: 'I find it very frustrating when you turn up late to
    meetings.'

  5. Be specific rather than general. To be told that one is disorganized
    will probably not be as useful as to be told: 'When you were asked to produce the report on assessment you left it to the last minute and it wasn't very convenient.'

  6. Take into account the receiver's needs as well as your own. Feedback can be destructive when it serves only our needs and fails to consider the needs of the person on the receiving end.

  7. Direct it towards behaviour that the receiver can control.

  8. Check to ensure dear communication. One way of doing this is to
    have the receiver try to rephrase the feedback s/he has received to sec if it corresponds to your understanding of what you have just said.

  9. When feedback is given in a group, allow giver and receiver the
    opportunity to check the accuracy of the feedback with others in the
    group.

Those are the main skills of feedback and for giving positive feedback they, arc quite straightforward. Simply describe the actions and results in a straightforward way and add your comments on the achievement. When giving negative feedback you might find the following sequence effective:

  1. Describe the actions you observed and their results.

  2. Ask the individual if those were his/her intended results.

  3. With a typical 'No' response ask what their intended results were.

  4. Then ask what they could have done differently to achieve their
    desired results.

  5. Identify any possible barriers to 'doing things differently', i.e. lack of skills or resources.

  6. Discuss any alternative course of action.

  7. Agree a way to handle future, similar situations.

  8. Conclude by summarizing the main points discussed and the actions agreed.





Activity. Read the guidelines again. Use them to fill in the left column of the chart below (Giver).

FEEDBACK PROCEDURE


Giver

Receiver

- ask for feedback

- ask for feedback

- agree upon the criteria

-

- record data carefully

- make some notes during the event

- give feedback within 24 hours of the observation (at the earliest opportunity)

- listen to the teacher’s interpretation

- interpret factual data with reference to the criteria

- initiate a discussion

- participate in the discussion

- start with positive feedback. How?

-

- balance positive with negative

-

  • give negative feedback. How?

  • describe the actions you observed and their results

-

-

-

- with a typical ‘No’ response ask what her intended results were

-

-

-

- identify any possible barriers to ‘doing things’ differently

-

-

-

- agree a way to handle future, similar situations

- make notes on suggestions

-

-

- end on a positive note

-

- thank the receiver

-




- tell him / her what specific information you have found useful


LANGUAGE OF FEEDBACK
Activity.

What phrases make a feedback discussion positive, human and useful? Choose between A, B or C.

A. I decided to do ..., You did ..., I had to choose ..., It was one option ..., I chose to ..., The (dis)advantage of it was ..., What do you feel was the disadvantage of taking that option? Another time I could ..., Another option available then was ..., And if I did, the good things would be ..., The advantage there might be ..., But a disadvantage would be ..., Another time you could choose another option ..., I'll have to weigh it up…

B. You/I should have ..., You/I shouldn't have ..., Why didn't you...?, You/I could have ..., Where you/I went wrong was ..., I wouldn't have/would have ..., It was terrible ...,
Everything was OK until you ..., It wasn't terrible but you ...

C. Just a minute, let me see if I've got this right..., OK, what I hear you're saying is this ..., Can I just check something with you properly ..., Right, so it looks like this ...

GUIDELINES FOR GIVING FEEDBACK


  1. Keep the time short between the student writing and the feedback

  2. Where possible give instantaneous feedback

  3. He in the grade with the comment (i.e. not ‘An excellent piece of work: D’)

  4. Summarize the comments and flag the fact that it's a summary

  5. Balance positive with negative

  1. Flag what is positive and what is negative

  2. Negative points should be constructive

8. Indicate how the student can improve

9. Follow up with oral feedback

  1. Aim for a dialogue

  2. Encourage students to evaluate themselves

  3. Encourage students to ask for feedback elsewhere (e.g. from other students or other members of staff)

  4. Ask students what kind of feedback they want

  5. Make the criteria clear when setting the work and relate the feedback to the criteria

  6. Distinguish between different skills (e.g. the student may have lots of good ideas but be poor at spelling)

  7. Offer help (e.g. "Would you like a refresher course on the use of the apostrophe?")

  8. Give affective feedback (e.g. “It's really frustrating reading your essay because it could have been good but...” or “I enjoyed reading this...”)

  9. Make further suggestions (e.g. for further reading or developing ideas)

  10. Distinguish between formative and summative assessments

  11. Give periodic oral feedback on rough drafts

Assignment on Classroom management


  1. Seating arrangement

In your favourite group you want your students to brainstorm the uses of a paper clip on a desert island. What seating arrangement would you offer? What language would you use?

  1. Blackboard use

How would you use your blackboard in your classroom for explanation of degrees of comparison? If you draw pictures feel free.

  1. Classroom climate

How do you praise a child during lesson routine? Note ten ways of praising.

  1. Errors and correction

  1. She be a good pupil.

  2. How you feeling, Jim?

  3. Happy burthday!

  4. Can you make me a favour?

5. Choosing the appropriate technique for classroom interaction. Decide how you would get your students involved in the topic ‘Making money’.

  1. Giving instructions

Simplify the instructions using less confusing language or gesture.

  1. Now actually I would really like you if you could now stand up Yes everyone please.

  2. It’s the unit on er travel somewhere it’s near the middle page 35 and 36, can you find that? Have you got it, no, not that one, the next unit, and take a look at the introduction, read it through quickly and jot down your answers to the questions at the top of the page over there above the illustration.

  3. If I were to ask you for your opinion on smoking what do you think you might say to me in your reply?

  4. Would you like to tell everyone the answer you were thinking of again because I don’t think they heard it. When you spoke so quietly and I’m sure we’d all be interested in hearing if you could please.

  5. Well, that wasn’t really what I was hoping you’d say when I asked that question I was actually looking for the name of the verb tense not an example sentence but what you gave me was fine only does everyone I wonder have the answer I’m looking for?






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