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Students design a poster for a school event.
Students listen to a tape recording of a conversation.
Students practice saying sentences with the Present Perfect.
Students prepare a talk on a subject of their choosing.
Students repeat words and phrases to make sure they can say them correctly.
Students work out the answers to a reading comprehension.
Students write a dialogue between a traveller and an immigration official.
Students write a paragraph about themselves.
The teacher explains the rule for the pronunciation of‘s’ plurals.
Students choose one of three alternatives when faced with an imaginary moral dilemma.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Give your reasons.
Stages of the lesson
Aims: By the end of the lesson the students will be able to distinguish between 3 sequences of a good lesson: ESA (“Straight Arrow Sequence”), EAS (A) (“Boomerang Sequence”) and “Patchwork”, to define the three stages of a lesson and to produce their own activities for an ESA lesson.
Activity. Read the information about the three elements of successful language learning, highlight or underline the aims of each stage and types of activities.
What elements are necessary for successful language learning in classrooms?
Classroom students don’t usually get the same kind of exposure or encouragement as those who – at whatever age – are ‘picking up’ the language. But that does not mean they cannot learn a language if the right conditions apply. Like language learners outside schools, they will need to be motivated, be exposed to language, and given chances to use it. We can therefore way what elements need to be present in a language classroom to help students learn effectively. We will call these elements ‘ESA’, three elements which will be present in all – or almost all – classes. They are:
Engage: this is the point in a teaching sequence where teachers try to arouse the students’ interest, thus involving their emotions.
Most people can remember lessons at school which were uninvolving and where they ‘switch off’ from what was being taught them. Frequently, this was because they were bored, because they were not emotionally engaged with what was going on. Such lessons can be contrasted with lessons where they were amused, moved, stimulated or challenged. It seems quite clear that those lessons involved not only more ‘fun’, but also better learning.
Activities and materials which frequently Engage students include: games (depending on age and type), music, discussions (when handled challengingly), stimulating pictures, dramatic stories, amusing anecdotes etc. But even where such activities and materials are not used, teachers will want to ensure that their students Engage with the topic, exercise or language they are going to be dealing with. They will ask students what they think of a topic before asking them to read about it, for example. They will look at the picture of a person and be asked to guess what their occupation is before they listen to that person on tape, they will have been stimulated by the fact that the teacher (who normally dresses very formally and always stays in the same place in class) suddenly arrives in class dressed casually and moves around the room with unaccustomed ease, and so on.
When students are Engaged, they learn better than when they are partly or wholly disengaged!
Study: Study activities are those where the students are asked to focus in on language (or information) and how it is constructed. They range from the study and practice of a single sound to an investigation of how a writer achieves a particular effect The two procedures we’ve shown so far demonstrate two different approaches to language teaching. In straight arrows sequences the teacher knows what the students need and takes them logically to the point where they can Activate the knowledge which he or she has helped them to acquire. For the boomerang sequence, however, the teacher selects the task the students need to perform, but then waits for the boomerang to come back before deciding what they need to Study.
Many lessons aren't quite as clear-cut as this, however. Instead, they are a mixture of procedures and mini-procedures, a variety of short episodes building up to a whole.
Activity. Read about the three sequences which are very effective with students of different levels at any language lesson. Fill in the chart:
Activity. Look at the example of “Patchwork” lesson. Define each stage: Engage, Study or Activate.
1. Students look at a picture of sunbathers and respond to it by commenting on the people and the activity they are taking part in. Maybe they look at each other's holiday photos etc.
2. Students act out a dialogue between a doctor and a sunburn victim after a day at the beach.
3. Students look at a text describing different people and the effects the sun has on their skin. They say how they feel about it. (The text is on page 75 in this book.)
4. the teacher does vocabulary work on words such as pale, fair-skinned, freckles, tan' etc., ensuring that students understand the meaning, the hyphened compound nature of some of them, and that they are able to say them with the correct pronunciation in appropriate contexts.
5. Students describe themselves or people they know in the same kind of ways as the reading text.
6. The teacher focuses the students' attention on the relative clause construction used in the text (e.g. ‘I’m the type of person who always burns', ‘I’m the type of person who burns easily'). The use of the 'who' clause is discussed and students practice sentences saying things like ‘They're the kind of people who enjoy movies’ etc.
7. The teacher discusses advertisements with the students. What are they for? What different ways do they try to achieve their effect? What are the most effective ads the students can think of? Perhaps the teacher plays some radio commercials or puts some striking visual ads on an overhead projector.
8. The students write a radio commercial for a sunscreen. The teacher lets them record it using sound effects and music.
Activity. Read the description of the first lesson; define the end of each stage.
Activity. Read the description of the second lesson; define the stages of the lesson and where each stage ends.
Activity: (see the supplement).
a) look through the Engage activities and give each of the activities a ‘like it’ score from 0 (= I don’t like it at all) to 5 (=I love it);
b) tick the boxes which are similar to Study activities you have experienced as a learner;
c) tick the boxes for the activities you would enjoy doing if you were learning a language.
Activity: How would you describe the following lesson sequences in terms of ESA?
(see the supplement)
Activity: Use any materials you have at your disposal, design a set of activities for an ESA model of a lesson.
Activity. Match the lesson types with their outcomes of effective and lazy use:
Module: Effective Lesson
Giving instructions and evaluating lesson effectiveness.
Aims: The students will be able to give clearly stated instructions and evaluate lesson effectiveness using criteria. .
Activity Read the passage from J. Harmer’s book “How to teach English” and work out what two general rules for giving instructions he recognizes.
Activity. Put a tick in the boxes if you think the instructions are good.
Activity. Guidelines on giving effective explanations and instructions. Read the guidelines and work out the headlines for each passage.
Activity. Giving instructions
Activity. Planning includes evaluation and implementation. How can you define evaluation and implementation.
Evaluation is gathering into about a class or an individual in order to form a judgment.
Implementation is carrying out a plan of a lesson.
Look at the list of criteria and match them with the descriptions:
Criteria for evaluating lesson effectiveness
Activity. Put the criteria in the order of priority.
Activity. Using the guide evaluate the lesson the description of which you can read in Box 15.5.
Activity. Look through the plan of the given lesson and answer the questions. Present your findings
Suggest your order of priority for the following criteria of evaluating the effectiveness of a lesson:
Progression of skills
Timing and Pace
Tasks and Activities
Patterns of interaction
Dealing with errors
GUIDE TO USE OF CRITERIA
By the end of the lesson the students will be able to define different ways of correction mistakes of the written language and of the oral speech, to identify different patterns of interaction according to the type of activity.
P.Ur. “A course in language teaching”. R.Tanner & C.Green Tasks for teacher education.
Complete the sentences and be as practical and specific as you can.
For example see Box 17.3. Penny Ur. Module 17. Oral correction techniques.
1) learners become more………………. 2) learners don’t feel …………………
partners of the same level it’s ………………to hear mistakes or errors)
Task 2. Group work Engage. T:10’
Here are some useful hints for indicating and correcting errors of the written language.
S – spelling
P – punctuation (including capital letters)
T – tense
A – article
WW – wrong word
WO – word order
C – connection of ideas
S/P – singular/plural
App – appropriacy (inappropriate style)
?M – meaning isn’t clear
^ - something missing here
- start a new paragraph
Stage 1 Elementary. Underline the mistake and write the symbol in the margin.
Stage 2 Underline the whole word or phrase and write the symbol in the margin (…level)
Stage 3 Do not underline the word or the mistake; only write the symbol on the margin (level…)
Stage 4 Put a dot (or a cross, or a tick in the margin for each mistakes)
Any fresh ideas?
Task 3 Activate. Pair work. T: 5’ -------
Read the following examples of learners’ errors and think of efficient ways of indicating what is wrong or correcting.
Task 4 Activate (Home assignment). Task 6
10 situations. What would you do?
p.39 (trainer’s book)
Task5. Engage Tasks for teacher education U.12 We all make mistakes
Task 6. Engage
Some possible causes of errors:
Typical English errors vary according to first language.
Correction means helping people to express themselves more accurately.
Try to make correction a part of the teaching and learning process, not something for learning to fight against.
Task 10 Engage. T Class, T:5’ (p.142 J.Harmer)
How should teachers use their physical presence in class?
Which might be appropriate for the behaviour described.
Teacher behaviour. Situations
Task 11 Activate. Pair work: T: 10
Work in pairs. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Give your reasons.
2. What do you think is the best seating arrangement for the following
situations. Explain your reasons.
Aims: by the end of the session the students will able to distinguish between an error and a mistake, to make up a list of possible causes of making mistakes.
Materials: ‘A course in language teaching’ P. Ur
‘Task for teacher education’ R. Tanner, G. Green
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