11 «Б» класса Учитель: Олжабаева А. У. Пояснительная записка


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Mood. Наклонение.

Наклонение- это грамматическая категория, показывающая, как говорящий рассматривает определенное действие относительно действительности (реальный факт - изъявительное наклонение (The Indefinite Mood ) , нереальный, желаемый - сослагательное (the Subjunctive Mood). Побуждение к действию (просьба, приказ) выражают глаголы в повелительном наклонении (the Imperative Mood).

Повелительном наклонении. The Imperative Mood.


Follow!

Don’t follow!

Hold!

Don’t hold!


Сослагательное наклонение. The Subjunctive Mood


conditional sentences




models

condition

time of action

I

if the weather is fine I shall come to you tomorrow.

if + Present Indefinite – shall (will) + do

real

future

II

if I had time I should go there.

if he were at home we could go to see him.

if + Past Indefinite (were) – should( would) + do

unreal

present or future

III

if I had had time yesterday I should have gone there.

if + Past Perfect – should (would) + have done

unreal

past


После глагола to wish (хотеть, желать) в придаточном предложении для выражения сожаления, неосуществленного желания в главном употребляется:

1. Past Simple для выражения действия, относящегося к настоящему времени

I wish I were an artist. Жаль, что я не художник.

2. Past Perfect для действия в прошлом

I wish he had come yesterday. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы он пришел вчера. (Жаль , что он не пришел вчера.)

3. модальные глаголы would, could (хотел, мог) для выражения сожаления, относящегося к будущему времени.

I wish they would see this film yesterday (but they won’t). как бы мне хотелось, чтобы они посмотрели этот фильм завтра. (как жаль, что они не увидят этот фильм завтра).
Смешанный тип.

  1. условие относится к прошедшему, а следствие к настоящему или будущему.

If you had visited this city last year, you would know it better now. Если бы ты посетил этот город в прошлом году, ты бы теперь лучше знал его.

  1. условие относится к неопределенному времени, а следствие к прошедшему.

I should have invited them if I liked them. Я бы пригласил их, если бы они мне нравились.

Если - if

Если…не- unless

Предположим что – supposing that

При условии если – on condition that
Test №16.

  1. Выберите правильную форму:

If I see him I … give him a lift.

A) will B) would C) have would D) had would E) would

  1. If I knew English well, I … take this job.

A) shall B) will C) would D) - E) was

  1. If he were rich he … buy a car.

A) shall B) will C) would D) should E) would have

  1. If I … her better I would turn to her for help.

A) know B) had known C) will know D) knew E) have known

  1. If the weather … fine you would not stay at home.

A) is B) be C) was D) were E) are

6. If she … him she would be happy.

A) marries B) marry C) will marry D) married E) had married

7.If they … a taxi they wouldn’t have missed the train.

A) take B) took C) had taken D) have taken E) will take

8. If you …my advice you would have bought it.

A) had followed B) followed C) will follow D) follow E) have followed

9. If the weather is fine we … have a good time.

A) should B) would C) shall D) had E) have

10. If I were you, I … a computer.

A) would buy B) would have bought C) will have bought D) will buy E) would have buy

11. If I were you, I … England years ago.

A) would visit B) will be visiting C) would have visited D) will visit E) would visited

12. I wish you … interrupting me.

A) to stop B) would stop C) would stopped D) have stopped E) will stop

13. I wish you … me something about the Tower of London.

A) would tell B) will tell C) told D) telling E) tell

14. If he didn’t like people, he … a doctor.

A) would had become B) wouldn’t become C) wouldn’t became

D) wouldn’t have become E) will become

15. Plants die if you … them.

  1. won’t water B) don’t water C) wouldn’t water D) will not water E) shouldn’t water

16. What a pity my husband is away. If he … here, he … up.

A) were/will help B) were/would help C) would be here/would help

D) is/helps E) is/will help

17. If I … early tomorrow morning, I … jogging.

A) get up/will go B) will get up/go C) got up/will go D) get up/am going to go

E) will get up/will go

18. If the water is heated to 100’ C, it … .

A) would boil B) will boil C) boil D) boils E) would have boiled

19. If you buy any more books we … any place to sleep.

A) don’t have B) won’t have C) haven’t had D)doesn’t have E) hadn’t had

20. If he were in Astana he … us.

A) visits B) will visit C) would have visited D) will visited E) would visit


Reported speech. Косвенная речь.

Закон согласования времен.

Если в главном предложении сказуемое выражено прошедшим временем, то в придаточном сказуемое должно быть выражено одной из форм прошедшего времени.





present

past

future

future in the past

simple











progressive












perfect











perfect progressive













В косвенной речи время глагола не меняется,

  • если вы говорите о чем-то, что все еще имеет место:

He said: “I write to my parents every week.” He said that he writes /wrote to his parents every week.

  • Past Simple не меняется, если в предложении указана конкретная дата

He said:” Australia was discovered in 1788.” He said that Australia was discovered in 1788.


  • Модальные глаголы не изменяется независимо от того, в каком времени стоит глагол главного предложения

Tom said :”You should visit London.” Tom said that I should visit London.”


  • При обращении прямой речи в косвенную меняются не только формы глагола, но и места и времени и указательные местоимения.

now – then

here – there

this, these – that, those

today – that day

tomorrow – the following day / next day

yesterday – the day before/ the previous day

next week - the following week / next week

last year - the year before/ the previous year

the day after tomorrow – two days later / in two days

the day before yesterday – two days before

ago – before.


direct speech

reported speech

утвердительные предложения – that + предложение

He said:” Everything is so green and natural.”


He said that everything was so green and natural.

общие вопросы - if/whether + предложение

He said: ”Have you been to London?”


He asked if/whether he had been to London.

специальные вопросы - спец. вопросительное слово + предложение

He said: ” Where are you staying?”


He asked where he was staying.

вопросы к подлежащему – порядок не меняется

He said: “Who speaks Russian here?”


He asked who spoke Russian there.

повелительное наклонение - инфинитив

He said Tom: “ Ring me up tomorrow.”

He said: “Could you give me Mike’s phone number, please?”

He said: “ Don’t come home late tonight.”


He told Tom to ring him up the next day.

He asked to give him Mike’s phone number.
He said not to come home late that night.



Test №17.

Переведите в косвенную речь.

1.John said: “I’m sorry to disturb you, Eliza.”

  1. John told that he was sorry to disturb Eliza.

  2. John told Eliza he was sorry to disturb her.

  3. John said to Eliza he had been sorry to disturb her.

  4. John said to Eliza that he had sorry to disturb her.

  5. John said to Eliza that he disturbed her.

2. He said: “Where is Jill going?”

  1. He asked where was Jill going.

  2. He asked where Jill is going.

  3. He asked where Jill was going.

  4. He asked where Jill were going.

  5. He asked where were Jill going.

3. Charles said: “Ann has bought a new car.”

  1. Charles said that Ann has bought a new car.

  2. Charles said that Ann bought a new car.

  3. Charles said Ann had bought a new car.

  4. Charles said Ann had been bought a new car.

  5. Charles said Ann has been bought a new car.

4. Sally said: “I would like to buy it.”

  1. Sally said that she would like to buy it.

  2. Sally said she would have liked to buy it.

  3. Sally said that she liked to buy it.

  4. Sally said she likes to buy it.

  5. Sally says that she would like to buy it.

5. Robby asked: “Bobby, do you know the Old Barn Hotel?”

  1. Robby asked Bobby if he knew the Old Barn Hotel.

  2. Robby asked Bobby did he know the Old Barn Hotel.

  3. Robby asked Bobby where the Old Barn Hotel.

  4. Robby asks Bobby if he knew the Old Barn Hotel.

  5. Robby asked Bobby if he had known the Old Barn Hotel.

6. The doctor said: “How do you feel?”

  1. The doctor asked how did I feel.

  2. The doctor asked how I felt.

  3. The doctor asked how I had felt.

  4. The doctor asks how I feel.

  5. The doctor asked how I have felt.

7. “Will you be free tomorrow?” Colin asked Richard.

  1. Richard asked would Colin be free the next day.

  2. Colin asked Richard if he would be free the following day.

  3. Colin asked if Richard will be free tomorrow.

  4. Colin asks Richard if he will be free tomorrow.

  5. Colin asked Richard if he would be free tomorrow.

8. “Don’t open the door”, said her mother.

  1. Her mother asked her to open the window.

  2. Her mother asks her not to open the door.

  3. Her mother said to her not to open the door.

  4. Her mother asked her not to open the door.

  5. Her mother asked her don’t open the door.

9. “Why hasn’t he locked the car door?” the policeman said.

A) The policeman asked why he hadn’t locked the car door.

B) The policeman asked why hadn’t he locked the car door.

C) The policeman asked why he didn’t lock the car door.

D) The policeman asked why he hasn’t locked the car door.

E)The policeman asked why he had not been locked the door.

10. The teacher said to us: “Be quiet, please.”

  1. The teacher asks us to be quiet.

  2. The teacher asked us to be quiet, please.

  3. The teacher asked us be quiet.

  4. The teacher asked us to be quiet.

  5. The teacher said to us be quiet.

11. “Could you show me these jeans, please?” said the boy.

  1. The boy said to show him those jeans.

  2. The boy asked to show him those jeans.

  3. The boy asked if the salesgirl could show him these jeans.

  4. The boy said to show him those jeans.

  5. The boy asks to show him those jeans.

12. Nick told us: “I saw Jimmy at a party last week.”

  1. Nick told us he has seen Jimmy at a party the week before.

  2. Nick told us he has been seen Jimmy at a party last week.

  3. Nick told us he saw Jimmy at a party last week.

  4. Nick told us he had been seen Jimmy last week.

  5. Nick told us he had seen Jimmy at a party the week before.

13. “How old are you?” she asked me.

  1. She asked me how old was I.

  2. She asked me how old I am.

  3. She asked me how old I were.

  4. She asked me how old I was.

  5. She asked me how old am I.

14. Ann said: “I can type now.”

  1. Ann said she can type now.

  2. Ann said she could type now.

  3. Ann said she could type then.

  4. Ann says she can type now.

  5. Ann said she couldn’t type now.

15. Mike said:” I’m going to give up my job.”

  1. Mike said he is going to give up his job.

  2. Mike said he is going to give up his job.

  3. Mike said he was going to give up his job.

  4. Mike says he is going to give up his job.

  5. Mike says he will give up his job.

16. The customs officer asked...anything to declare.

A)if he had

B)that if he had

C)if he has got

D)had he got

E) if he has get

17. Carol...to her friends that she was a nurse.

A)said

B)told

C)spoke

D)talked

E) asked

18. Linda asked me...down as the road was dangerous.

A)slow

B)to slow

C)if I slow

D)that I should slow

E) slowing

19. The doctor told me...up smoking as soon as possible.

A)to give

B)that I will give

C)give

D)gave

E) giving

20. We were told that the train...five minutes later.

A)would arrive

B)has arrived

C)had been arriving

D)would be arriving

E) will arrive
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